The history of mobile homes is a far more fascinating story than any soap opera you could watch.
The Covered Wagon was the first to mass-produce trailers in 1936, but it didn’t take long for others to join the bandwagon. Over 400 companies were producing their own trailers within the year. The industry grew so quickly it’s still on record for being one of the fastest-growing industries in US history,
How amazing is that?
This article is about the history of mobile homes. I’ll cover some major events, and a few advancements that helped transition mobile homes into the luxury manufactured homes we have today. Fair warning, it’s a wild ride!
the First Mobile Homes in the US
Many articles about mobile home history claim that the first mobile homes in the US were small cottages on the Outer Banks around 1870. Horses would move these little beach houses back and forth a few feet to avoid high tides. Those were not the first mobile homes. In fact, they weren’t even mobile, just merely moveable.
By definition, a mobile home is built on a chassis. Those little cottages had no chassis. Many homes have been moved by horse and engine, but that doesn’t mean they are mobile homes.
Conestoga Wagons were the First Mobile Homes in America
In my humble opinion, the Conestoga Wagon is America’s first mobile home. The Conestoga Wagon had wheels and a cambered chassis and were crucial to American development just like our modern day mobile and manufactured homes. Since 1717, they provided humans safety and shelter and helped families carry their goods across the Appalachian and westward. Roads were non-existent and it took days sometimes to travel a mile or two so these wagons were home for months, sometimes longer. Wikipedia describes the Conestoga Wagon:
“The Conestoga wagon was built with its floor curved upward to prevent the contents from tipping and shifting. Including its tongue, the average Conestoga wagon was 18 feet (5.4 m) long, 11 feet (3.3 m) high, and 4 feet (1.2 m) in width…..The frame and suspension were made of wood, and the wheels were often iron-rimmed for greater durability.”
Wikipedia, about Conestoga Wagons
The Automobile Changed Everything
Cities and towns were loud and especially dirty during the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Coal kept the homes warm and the factories going, but it did so at a cost; black soot and smoke settled on everything. The horses weren’t so clean either. Getting away from the pollution and enjoying fresh, clean air whenever possible was a luxury only the most fortunate could afford. Middle and upper-class families would travel by train to their second home in the country or a favorite resort for entire summers while the less fortunate stayed behind. The automobile changed that. In fact, the automobile changed everything.
The automobile equalized the middle class and the rich. It made getting away from it all possible for the majority of the country. The working class couldn’t afford second homes or fancy resorts, but they could afford auto camping.
Pierce Arrow’s Touring Landau
The Smithsonian awards the honor of being the nation’s first recreational vehicle to Pierce Arrow’s Touring Landau in 1910. The Touring Landau used a patented, fifth-wheel trailer hitch mechanism that was permanently attached to the automobile. The model was shown at Madison Square Garden and offered to the public for $8,250. It lists a phone line to connect the trailer to the driver and has a chamber pot.
The images below are considered the two first mobile homes in America.
Left Image is on display at the RV and Mobile Home Hall of Fame and is believed to be the oldest American travel trailer in existence but not the first. It was built in 1913 for a professor in California. (Courtesy of Wade Thompson, Thor Industries)Right Image is a 1915 Model T Roadster with a 1916 Telescope Apartment. The camper had drawers and extensions on both sides and the end. (Both Images from RV/MH Hall of Fame)
After WWI, the country experienced a strong economy, and then the automobile gave Americans freedom that hadn’t been possible before. America hasn’t been the same since.
In 1922, the New York Times predicted that 5 million out of 10 million automobiles would be used for camping.
The automobile did indeed change everything for Americans and the wide open road was calling. Small cargo trailers that housed tents and camping goods were commonly towed by ‘Touring’ model automobiles with a longer wheelbase to allow for sleeping. The tent offered privacy and shade, but the cars were used as beds. From there, history gets a little muddled.
The RV and fifth wheel trailers were born from those small cargo trailers and the travel trailer as we know them today follow. From 1913 to 1929, homemade and one-of-a-kind trailers (like the two above) were common. Home builders would use chassis from wrecked cars and even trailer/cargo trucks, so we can’t forget about their place in the history of mobile homes. In fact, the history of the tractor trailers, or 18-wheelers, pre-dates the travel trailer. Goods and merchandise had been transported with trailers remarkably similar to the travel trailers that eventually emerged. The travel trailer and camper industry borrowed many of the cambered chassis designs and material ideas from the transportation/cargo trailers.
The Covered Wagon Company
Many articles claim that Arthur G. Sherman and his Covered Wagon Company were the first to create a mobile home in a factory via an assembly line, so he is considered the father of the mobile home.
After a cumbersome camping trip, Arthur G. Sherman, a bacteriologist and president of a pharmaceutical firm, decided to start a solid-body camper company. In 1929 he invested $10,000 and rented a garage to build trailers under the name The Covered Wagon. In 1931, The Covered Wagon Company sold 117 campers, and by 1936, he was selling more than 10,000 campers and grossed over 3 million dollars in sales.
Mr. Sherman’s location was a factor in his success. The company began in Detroit, MI, and was later moved to Mount Clemens, Michigan, a small town close to Detroit.
Detroit was the automobile capital of the world and that gave Mr. Sherman the opportunity to study and visit Ford Motor Company’s famed production lines. It also gave him direct access to all the suppliers and material companies he needed to build the trailers.
The next image supposedly shows the first camper ever built by Mr. Sherman in 1929. The Detroit Historical Society has this camper in its collection.
Sherman’s campers eventually evolved into the bread loaf shape, one of 7 popular camper designs. The campers were 6.5′ wide and had the door on the side instead of the back like most previous designs. This kept the dirt out while in motion and allowed for a better floor plan.
The travel trailer and camper industry enjoyed unbelievable growth during the 1930s. Auto camping was the national pastime – people had never been so free and unhindered.
Between 1934 and ’35, The Covered Wagon Company enjoyed a 6-time growth rate. There were over 76 distributors in the US and five other countries.
The competition between the trailer builders was heated in the late 1930s because so many people were buying trailers.
Trailers were so popular that builders couldn’t build them fast enough, ” anything that looked like a trailer sold, whatever the size, shape, weight, construction, or cost.”
1936 Covered Wagon Ad:
In 1936, the camper and motor home industry was the fastest growing industry in America. The country was hooked on the freedom that travel trailers allowed them. By 1937 the trailer industry was so large they needed to create an industry trade association, Trailer Coach Manufacturers Association.
Seeing The Covered Wagon Company’s success didn’t go unnoticed and many companies entered the market. Even one of the Covered Wagon Company’s own dealers entered the market. In 1934, Wilbur J. Schult partnered with an investor and created their own trailer company called Schult Trailers. The design was a bit different but still had the bread loaf look.
While the bread loaf shape was popular, there were some trailers on the market at the beginning that were nothing short of amazing. Airstream, the iconic aluminum campers, was founded in 1935 by Wally Byam. The Silver Dome was founded in 1932 by Wolfe Bodies, Inc. by 1936 they were the second largest trailer builder in the nation, right behind Covered Wagon.
Gorgeous campers were being built, but there were growing pains.
So many families had trailers, and when they traveled, they needed a place to park their trailers. That was an issue because some people weren’t taught the proper manners for general decency and would litter, make a lot of noise, and leave the locals with a bad opinion of the people traveling. It was getting out of hand, and many towns were restricting trailer parks altogether because they worried about property values, crime, and a lower tax base. Some towns were cashing in and opening pay-by-night parks though they had to limit the number of nights trailers could stay. Otherwise, some trailer owners would stay for months. Learn more about mobile home park history here.
World War II affected the trailer industry just as drastically as it did everyone else. We needed so many resources for the war that the government began rations, and many factories were retooled to produce supplies for the war.
By 1940 trailer sales had slowed drastically. After so many builders entered the market in the mid-1930s, it was a bit saturated. For the trailer industry, all private sales to the public were forbidden. With declining sales and then a world war, the trailer industry was in jeopardy. Many companies, like Airstream, just shut down completely but would reopen after the war.
The industry convinced the government that trailers were perfect temporary worker housing. They could also qualify for critical materials use. Thousands of house trailers were built to aid the shortages at the larger war production facilities. The trailers were limited to only a couple of approved designs. The ‘Committee Trailer’ was one of the allowed designs. It was the war worker’s poor experience with the trailers that helped seal their fate. It was a no-win situation for the trailer companies. These trailers weren’t meant for full-time living in these cramped northern locations.
Read more about the mobile home stigma here.
By 1943 there were more than 43,000 working at the Willow Run Bomber Plant. Half of them were living in trailers. There were 16 private trailer parks, and a handful of government ran parks. You can watch a video about trailer parks here.
By the mid-1940s, trailers averaged 8 ft. wide and 20 ft. long. They could sleep several but had no bathroom. Still, many families were living in them full-time. Keep in mind that in the mid-1940s, many site-built homes didn’t have indoor plumbing.
Later that decade, the length went to over 30 ft. long, and bathrooms were installed. By this time, the men who had fought in WWII were coming home in masses, and cheap housing was a necessity. Mobile homes were a great fit for many, and the industry continued to evolve and flourish.
There was a different kind of housing shortage after the war. Instead of temporary homes, the country needed homes for full-time living. This is where the trailer industry started to shine. In 1947 it was believed that more than 6 million families were living with other family members and friends. The housing shortage was a huge problem, and trailer companies stepped up, building more than 60,000 units. By 1948 it’s estimated that 7 percent of the population was living in a trailer house or mobile home.
1936-1953 produced a ton of beautiful mobile homes. There were trailers for camping and large mobile homes for full-time living. It wasn’t until 1953 that the TCMA finally changed its name to the Mobile Home Manufacturers of America and began focusing on bigger and better homes for full-time living.
1949 National Trailer:
Like any industry, companies have to evolve and offer buyers bigger and better products, and the mobile home industry was constantly evolving. At one time, hundreds of mobile home builders competed against each other. The 1950s proved to be a time of unparalleled growth and gorgeous, innovative designs, which is why many call it the Golden Age.
The industry had a smart innovation system through large mobile home expos and trade shows. Builders would show one or two ‘new and exclusive designs at the larger mobile home expos and industry shows across the country. If dealers and/or the general public showed a lot of interest, they would put the home on the production line. If the homes didn’t receive any attention, it would be sold as model homes and the mobile home designers would go back to the drawing board, literally.
The 1954 Tri-level Pacemaker was one of the designs that received a lot of interest and orders. The bi-level and tri-level mobile homes were so popular that several different brands built them.
Pacemaker Tri-Level, 1954:
1954 was also the year that mobile homes became wider, from 8′ to 10′, because of highway restrictions. For the 1954 Sarasota Florida Mobile Home Exposition Elmer Frey introduced the ten ′ and many builders followed. The extra two feet allowed for a hallway in the homes, which allowed for complete privacy and a more home-like feel.
A Typical Mobile Home in the 1960s:
1960 had unique mobile home designs, the Colonial Town House was up to 53 foot long with an end kitchen. The Dublwide Roadliner was a popular double wide design.
1976 – 2019
In 1976, the US Congress passed the National Mobile Home Construction and Safety Act (42 U.S.C.). This was necessary to hold the industry to a higher standard and to ensure that mobile homes were safer and better made. The industry used this bill to rebrand the homes as manufactured homes.
HUD code did create a better home with minimum energy and building standards. They weren’t mobile – it took specialty equipment and a licensed installer to transport manufactured homes, so the word mobile no longer fits.
In 1980 Congress, due to pressure from the industry itself, changed the name mobile home to manufactured housing on a bill stating that the term mobile home cannot be used in any government literature.
They wanted to update the image of the industry and “manufactured home” evokes a higher class of product, and they did, sorta. They were so focused on changing everyone else they forgot to make changes to themselves.
Today, we have triple-wide manufactured homes and even two-story homes built on a chassis. The homes are just getting better and better, but they are also getting more expensive. Has the industry forgotten who its buyers are?
A Modern Manufactured Home:
It’s going to be interesting to see how manufactured homes continue to evolve.
Is the Mobile Home Stigma Disappearing?
To know the history of something is to understand it better. With this glimpse thru mobile homes’ history, I hope you will be more proud of them. The homes are great, but they have been dealt a bad hand over the years.
Manufactured homes are affordable, and they give us the freedom to quickly and efficiently set up a home. They aren’t perfect, but they are home to millions, and the pages here on Mobile Home Living® prove they can be as beautiful as any other home.
Mobile Homes evolved from the country’s desire for freedom, and they continue to give us a freedom that site-built construction can’t, both physically and financially.
Thank you for reading Mobile Home Living®!
Originally Published on September 17, 2011. Updated on April 28, 2019
32 thoughts on “The History of Mobile Homes (is Absolutely Fascinating)”
Is there any history, of the MobileHome Industry in Alabama , Winston – Tidwell Industries, – Haleyville, Addison, Bear Creek, Al.
Fascinating article and great information. I came across your site when I was looking for information about a manufactured (mobile) home I bought in 2015. It was manufactured by “Darlington” I think. The only information I have is a “mobile home affidavit retirement” as no long mobile as permanently attached to a foundation. It lists the make as “Darl” with vin numbers 6014D1132A and 6014D1132B. I have not been able to find any information on the it. Can you give me any suggestions as to where to look or find any information? THANK you for any help you can provide.
This was a great read. Thank you for putting the article together. I sell manufactured homes ans it is great to see a timeline summary of the history.
Can you refer me to information about Kimberley (or Kemberley, it is hard to read under 3+ layers of paint) Modular Homes built in 1987? I am trying to fix up a 24′ x 48′ model, Serial No. 9637GA, and have had NO luck even finding a reference to the company, only Trailer Parks with that or similar names. I was hoping to get some specs or old pics.
I write my master thesis about the history of mobile homes and trailer parks. I can find a little on the internet about mobile homes but not enough. It would be very glad if you would like to share with me your sources.
It would be greatful to have your help!
I emailed you!
Hi Crystal, I am writing a thesis on Tiny Houses and I would be very glad if you would like to share with me your sources. There is little about the first mobile homes on the internet (and also in books), and it would be amazing for me to have your help.
I’d be happy to help. Just email me email@example.com and I’ll point you in the right direction.
Do you have any information about the Princes Home? My parent bought a new one in 1963, we lived there for about 4 years.
I do not personally have any info but it sounds really familiar so I think I’ve seen an advertisement somewhere. It had a little girl dressed up in her mother’s clothes and said something about becoming royalty. (It may have been a different brand).
Hopefully, a reader will see this and can help.
Your page would make my parents proud. Lewis and Betty Bennett were industry pioneers in AL and SC. Dad was the first man to install a double wide over a basement in 1970. It was a 24’ Marlette. (Have pics) He also patented the two line liquid water level called the “level right “ level, in 1979. Similar units are still used today. We opened Bennett Homes of Gaffney Inc 23 years ago, and myself and the third generation are still going strong today. As a matter of fact, I’m currently trading for a 59’ Marlette 10’ that still looks great. I’ll send some of the literature we still have from the early days. Thanks again for great information on the business! Jon Bennett
Aw, thank you so much! That really means a lot to me. Admittedly, I’ve been hard on the industry (and especially salespeople) but I hope I make it clear that there is a clear divide between the good dealers and the bad ones. When a company has been in business for generations you can be pretty sure they do their customers right.
I would LOVE to talk to you more. Maybe we can do an article about your dad’s install and his water level? I would love that!
Anyone have any idea where I might find a floor plan for a Guerdon double-wide A5372/#254187 and B5372/#241546? Dennis in Auburn, CA
I am trying to define what a House trailer is considered in the 60″S. On my warranty deed it states no house trailers I believe this to mean mobile home. Where can I find out if in fact this is what is meant by this. I have a 5th wheel trailer and I am being told that this is considered a House trailer
If I had to guess, the ‘no house trailers’ would mean anything built before 1976 which is when HUD code/regulation mandated better building codes for factory-built housing. 5th wheels are considered a recreational vehicle and are not built to HUD standards at all so most towns/parks/municipalities/etc will not allow RV’s or ‘mobile homes’ or ‘trailers’ used for full-time living (aka house trailers).
There’s a real problem across the nation when it comes to the terminology and words used. Technically, a mobile home is a factory-built house created for full-time living that was built before 1976 and doesn’t meet any HUD code. Manufactured homes are any factory-built home that was built after June 1976 and does meet the minimum HUD code. The term trailer is used for both in the Southern states.
Best of luck!
My Great Grandfather was a pioneer in the mobile home industry. He was a brother to Guerdon T Wolfe Sr. and how Guerdon got into the business. Norman C. Wolfe Sr. he started Wolfe Bodies in 1924 in Detroit, Silver Dome Inc, and American Coach Co. later in Cassopolis, MI
Awesome! Do you have any cool momentoes? I’d love to see some pics and hear some stories..Drop me an email if you ever feel like talking about vintage mobile homes! (CrystalAdkins @ MobileHomeLiving.org – -just put it all together)
Thanks for commenting!
I’m Theodore A. Wolfe. Guerdon T. Wolfe was my father’s full brother. Norman C. Wolfe was my father’s (Roland O. Wolfe) half brother from grampa’s first marriage. Guerdon T. Wolfe built General Coach, and Great Lakes Industries in Marlette. I believe Uncle Guerdon had something to do with Marlette Homes also, but don’t know for sure! My father lived in Detroit,Mich. when he was young in a17 foot trailer, one of uncle Guerden’s first built units. Dad always said the canvas roof leaked like a side! Dad problem had something to do with the first trailers but can’t remember! I know uncle Guerdon and dad started the prototype unit in Snover. Also I understand that Your great grandfather (Norman) was Vice President of all the trailer corporations in the world at one point. He was a great man, very intelligent and would give a $50 bill whenever we seen him and my aunt Ruth at family dinners on the farm in Snover! Uncle Norman’s father, Theodore A. Wolfe the first was a brilliant man I understand and probley had his input also. I was very young back then, but can remember a few things my father told me. We still own the farm where your Great Grand father was raised in Snover. I hope this gives you an idea how great these people were. You can email me if you like at firstname.lastname@example.org if you like. I probley won’t be back on the site again.
Guerdon T. Wolfe was my uncle and your great grand father was also my uncle. I could tell you more about them if you like. E-mail me at tawolfe1@ hotmail.com if your interested.
i remember the American coach company as a little person and my dad worked there, still live in the same town! ha
That is awesome! Do you have any photos or memories you’d like to share? My email is email@example.com, I’d love to hear about them!
Guerdon T Wolfe Sr. Was my fathers (Dale M Wolfe) uncle. I was surprised to see your post and that my Uncle Ted had posted/replied. My father also talks about Jr Guerdon. Would love to hear from you with more about the family tree. Thethreewolfes@yahoo.com
I am interested in the early days of manufacture of mobile homes and campers. I lives in Marlette, MI which had several factories==Marlette Coach Co., General Coach Works, Guerdon Homes, and Active Homes. My dad worked for three of these, remembers a man who painted a hunting scene on the back of each Marlette camper (White tailed deer, Pheasant, Ducks). I went to school with Earl Swett’s granddaughter (a founder of Marlette Homes), and Guerdon Wolfe’s grandson, a founder of a Mobile Home Company. Was Marlette a pioneer location? Or was Elkhart (I lived there for six years too).
Lucky you! As far as I know, Elkhart, IN is considered the mobile home capital and is the home of the Mobile Home Hall of Fame. They apparently have an amazing library that would be a great place to visit if you’re in the area. I would love to visit someday so if you ever do get there PLEASE take images for me.
I would love to hear some of your stories about the towns back when the mobile home industry was in full swing. So glad you commented. Please keep in touch!
Sad to say I currently live in a Marlette mobile home n drain in jutchen won’t drain. Was told the drain vent is on top of the house. Never heard of such. Is this true?
So, your vent stack is the pipe going through your walls and out your roof. It takes the sewer smell away from the house and keeps the waste lines/system in a neutral state so it can flush out the waste. It could be a clog in your vent stack but 90% of the time if it’s a kitchen you have a clog in your or around your P-trap from grease buildup. It’s particularly tricky because snaking these clogs don’t really work as the clog just closes off again as you pull the snake back. You may have to open up the pipe and clean it out by hand. If it’s not that you can try installing an auto vent under your sink, that will act as a mini stack vent.
Best of luck!
I am interested in finding out more information on our family’s trailer. We lived in it from about 1953 to 1956. My older brother says it was a Pratt, was 39 feet long and unusual in that it had three axles. Can you help me? I’d love to see a photo or a diagram of the interior.
There have been hundreds (maybe thousands) of models made over the decades so finding information on an exact vintage home is pretty hard. Google search is amazingly accurate though if you type in as much info as you can about it. You may stumble upon a brochure or someone talking about it in an article. Best of luck!
I’m trying to find information on Elcar Trailerized Homes. Do you have any suggestions on where I might start?
If you go to Facebook and search for vintage mobile home groups and/or elcar you’ll find several groups that are very active. Join the group and make a post asking about information.
You may want to order the digital reproductions of the mobile home magazines for the era you are interested in and hope there is an article or press release or ad about them. You can find them for around $10 for several on a CD.
If you are close to Elkhart IN there is a mobile home hall of fame that has an extensive library too. Unfortunately, there isn’t a lot of resources on vintage mobile homes so we have to turn to people that are just passionate about them and hope they can help.
Best of luck!
Hello I am looking for information about a trailer I purchased on property in Northern Wisconsin. We can’t seem to find the registration tag to gain a title. It’s quite remarkable for it’s age, which we approximate to be late 50’s early 60’s and I think someone may be interested. It has built-in dressers and closets in the 2 end bedrooms. Louver windows throughout. an angled kitchen, leaving room for the bathroom behind it. There is a large stretched “S” on the back and there is a silver plaque with the letters : MHMA TCA with the number 0045227 engraved into it. I would appreciate any information as to what company or what year this might be or if you know of any reference sites available those would help in my search as well. Thank you for your time. Sincerely, Pam
There really isn’t any particular database available for all the mobile homes built in the last century. There were hundreds of builders that manufactured thousands of different models so it’s near impossible to keep track of them all.
With that said, the MHMA is Mobile Home Manufacturers Association and TCA is Trailer Coach Association (if I recall correctly). They began using mobile home in lieu of trailer in 1954.
There were a few different builders that used the slant kitchen design; Greer and American Coach are probably the two best known. The slant kitchens came out in the late 1950’s/early 1960’s.
Here’s an article I wrote about mobile home kitchens from 1955 to 1960: https://mobilehomeliving.org/mobile-home-kitchens-from-1955-to-1960/
The article has a few images that may help you narrow down which home you have. Best of luck – let me know if you figure it out!